Functional Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Genome by Gene Deletion and Parallel Analysis
Elizabeth A. Winzeler* Daniel D. Shoemaker*, Anna Astromoff*,
Hong Liang*, Keith Anderson, Bruno Andre, Rhonda Bangham, Rocio Benito,
Jef D. Boeke, Howard Bussey, Angela M. Chu, Carla Connelly, Karen Davis,
Fred Dietrich, Sally Whelen Dow, Mohamed El Bakkoury, Françoise Foury,Stephen
H. Friend, Erik Gentalen, Guri Giaever, Johannes H. Hegemann, Ted Jones,
Michael Laub, Hong Liao, Nicole Liebundguth, David J. Lockhart, Anca
Lucau-Danila, Marc Lussier, Nasiha M'Rabet, Patrice Menard, Michael
Mittmann, Li Ni, Chai Pai, Corinne Rebischung, Jose L. Revuelta, Linda
Riles, Christopher J. Roberts, Petra Ross-MacDonald, Bart Scherens,
Michael Snyder, Sharon Sookhai-Mahadeo, Reginald K. Storms, Steeve Véronneau,
Marleen Voet, Guido Volckaert, Teresa R. Ward, Robert Wysocki, Grace
S. Yen, Kexin Yu, Katja Zimmermann, Peter Philippsen, Mark Johnston,
and Ronald W. Davis (1)
* These authors contributed equally to this work.
(1) Department of Biochemistry, Beckman Center, Stanford
University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
The functions of most open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome-sequencing
projects is unknown. New, whole genome approaches are required to systematically
determine their function. A total of 6925 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains
were constructed, by a high-thoughput strategy, each with a precise deletion
of one of 2026 ORFs (more than one-third of the ORFs in the genome). Of
the deleted ORFs, 17 percent were essential for viability in rich medium.
The phenotypes of more than 500 deletion strains were assayed in parallel.
Of the deletion strains, 40 percent showed quantitative growth defects
in either rich or minimal medium.
Science. 285 : 901-906 (1999)
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last updated 02.20.02